China is the oldest country in the world, with a continuous historical tradition of nearly 6,000 years.
The main periods (epochs) in the history of Ancient China traditionally bear the names of dynasties and kingdoms:
- Shang (or Yin) dynasty – XVI – XI centuries. C.
- Zhou and Zhanguo – XI – III centuries. C.
- Qin – 221 – 207 years BC
- Han – 206 BC e. – 220 AD
The earliest mention of China dates back to the days of Fuxi reign, who lived from 30 to 40 centuries before the beginning of our era. It is believed that the gods inspired him to write the sacred book of ancient China, “Yingzhin”, from which comes the theory that the physical universe arose and develops due to the alternation of yin-yans.
Han period is important stage in the history of China because of the development of writing. Instead of a pointed stick, which served as a lacquer on bamboo and wooden straps, a hair brush was introduced. At the turn of our era there were carcasses invented in China, and later the Chinese started using graphite. Finally, in the 1st century, the Chinese invented the paper, which is one of the important stages in the development of human civilization.
In the Tang era (618-907), China has achieved significant prosperity. It was during this period that he became one of the most powerful states in the East Asia and the entire world. The key feature of this stage is the development of the economy, Chinese trade on land, the prosperity of culture, classical painting, flourishing of such types of art as music, dance and opera. Remarkable ceramic products were actively produced and the secret of white semi-transparent porcelain has been discovered. Dominated by Confucian ethics and Buddhism, there has been progress in science – mainly in astronomy and geography.
Closer to the end of the 20th century, a series of reforms, such as economic, agrarian, and industrial and agricultural reforms, have been introduced in the history of China, which has led China’s economy to grow at a dramatic pace.
At this stage, China holds the position of a world leader, dominant in the sphere of steel smelting, concrete production, cheap consumer goods, and China ranks first in the world for the export of rice.